Optimized Electroless Ni-Cu-P Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Steel Rebars from Pitting Attack of Chlorides
Structures, constructions and bridges in coastal areas are greatly affected by the corrosive attack of chlorides. This reduces their lifetime and leads to losses due to their maintenance. This study aims to improve the lifetime and corrosion-proof behavior of steel rebars in the saline environment (3.5% NaCl) by applying electroless Ni-Cu-P coatings with high corrosion resistance. Ni-Cu-P coating was deposited on Fe-600 steel rebars. The coating was deposited by varying bath condition parameters, such as concentration of nickel sulphate, sodium hypophosphite and copper sulphate. This led to a variation in Ni, P and Cu content, and finally, the optimal bath combination was obtained using the Taguchi-based grey relational analysis. For concentrations of 25, 10 and 0.3 g/l nickel sulphate, sodium hypophosphite and copper sulphate, enhanced corrosion resistance of the coated rebars could be achieved with 350 mV Ecorr and 0.4 μA/cm2 Icorr. At the same time, the bare rebars had Ecorr of -653 mV and Icorr of 11.7 μA/cm2.
Song Y., Wightman E., Kulandaivelu J., Bu H., Wang Z., Yuan Z., Jiang G., Rebar corrosion and its interaction with concrete degradation in reinforced concrete sewers, Water Research, 182: 115961, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.115961.
Samson G., Deby F., Garciaz J.-L., Lassoued M., An alternative method to measure corrosion rate of reinforced concrete structures, Cement and Concrete Composites, 112: 103672, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2020.103672.
Cabrini M., Lorenzi S., Coffetti D., Coppola L., Pastore T., Inhibition effect of tartrate ions on the localized corrosion of steel in pore solution at different chloride concentrations, Buildings, 10(6): 105, 2020, doi: 10.3390/buildings10060105.
Bolzoni F., Brenna A., Beretta S., Ormellese M., Diamanti M.V., Pedeferri M.P., Progresses in prevention of corrosion in concrete, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 296: 012016, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/296/1/012016.
Sadati S., Arezoumandi M., Shekarchi M., Long-term performance of concrete surface coatings in soil exposure of marine environments, Construction and Building Materials, 94: 656–663, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.094.
James A., Bazarchi E., Chiniforush A.A., Aghdam P.P., Hosseini M.R., Akbarnezhad A., Martek I. Ghodoosi F., Rebar corrosion detection, protection, and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures in coastal environments: A review, Construction and Building Materials, 224: 1026–1039, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.250.
Sagüés A.A., Pech-Canul M.A., Shahid Al-Mansur A.S., Corrosion macrocell behavior of reinforcing steel in partially submerged concrete columns, Corrosion Science, 45(1): 7–32, 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0010-938X(02)00087-2.
Shi J., Ming J., Influence of defects at the steel-mortar interface on the corrosion behavior of steel, Construction and Building Materials, 136: 118–125, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.007.
Pradhan B., Bhattacharjee B., Rebar corrosion in chloride environment, Construction and Building Materials, 25(5): 2565–2575, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.11.099.
Manera M., Vennesland Ø., Bertolini L., Chloride threshold for rebar corrosion in concrete with addition of silica fume, Corrosion Science, 50(2): 554–560, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2007.07.007.
Wang D., Ming J., Shi J., Enhanced corrosion resistance of rebar in carbonated concrete pore solutions by Na2HPO4 and benzotriazole, Corrosion Science, 174: 108830, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2020.108830.
Wu M., Shi J., Beneficial and detrimental impacts of molybdate on corrosion resistance of steels in alkaline concrete pore solution with high chloride contamination, Corrosion Science, 183: 109326, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2021.109326.
Kumar S., Yang E.-H., Unluer C., Investigation of chloride penetration in carbonated reactive magnesia cement mixes exposed to cyclic wetting–drying, Construction and Building Materials, 284: 122837, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.122837.
Cascudo O., Pires P., Carasek H., de Castro A., Lopes A., Evaluation of the pore solution of concretes with mineral additions subjected to 14 years of natural carbonation, Cement and Concrete Composites, 115: 103858, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2020.103858.
Liu S., Zhu M., Ding X., Ren Z., Zhao S., Zhao M., Dang J., High-durability concrete with supplementary cementitious admixtures used in corrosive environments, Crystals, 11(2): 196, 2021, doi: 10.3390/cryst11020196.
Baltazar-Zamora M.A., M Bastidas D., Santiago-Hurtado G., Mendoza-Rangel J.M., Gaona-Tiburcio C., Bastidas J.M., Almeraya-Calderón F., Effect of silica fume and fly ash admixtures on the corrosion behavior of AISI 304 embedded in concrete exposed in 3.5% NaCl solution, Materials, 12(23): 4007, 2019, doi: 10.3390/ma12234007.
Söylev T.A., Richardson M.G., Corrosion inhibitors for steel in concrete: State-of-the-art report, Construction and Building Materials, 22(4): 609–622, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.10.013.
Pan C., Chen N., He J., Liu S., Chen K., Wang P., Xu P., Effects of corrosion inhibitor and functional components on the electrochemical and mechanical properties of concrete subject to chloride environment, Construction and Building Materials, 260: 119724, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119724.
Luo H., Su H., Dong C., Li X., Passivation and electrochemical behavior of 316L stainless steel in chlorinated simulated concrete pore solution, Applied Surface Science, 400: 38–48, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.12.180.
Tian Y., Liu M., Cheng X., Dong C., Wang G., Li X., Cr-modified low alloy steel reinforcement embedded in mortar for two years: Corrosion result of marine field test, Cement and Concrete Composites, 97: 190–201, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2018.12.019.
Mukhopadhyay A., Sahoo S., Corrosion protection of construction steel, [In:] Sahoo P. [Ed.], Handbook of Research on Developments and Trends in Industrial and Materials Engineering, pp. 327–347, 2020, IGI Global, doi: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1831-1.ch014.
Tang F., Chen G., Brow R.K., Volz J.S., Koenigstein M.L., Corrosion resistance and mechanism of steel rebar coated with three types of enamel, Corrosion Science, 59: 157–168, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2012.02.024.
Tang F., Chen G., Volz J.S., Brow R.K., Koenigstein M.L., Microstructure and corrosion resistance of enamel coatings applied to smooth reinforcing steel, Construction and Building Materials, 35: 376–384, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.059.
Tang F., Cheng X., Chen G., Brow R.K., Volz J.S., Koenigstein M.L., Electrochemical behavior of enamel-coated carbon steel in simulated concrete pore water solution with various chloride concentrations, Electrochimica Acta, 92: 36–46, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2012.12.125.
Tang F., Chen G., Brow R.K., Chloride-induced corrosion mechanism and rate of enamel- and epoxy-coated deformed steel bars embedded in mortar, Cement and Concrete Research, 82: 58–73, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2015.12.015.
Pour-Ali S., Dehghanian C., Kosari A., Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating, Corrosion Science, 90: 239–247, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2014.10.015.
Sohail M.G., Salih M., Al Nuaimi N., Kahraman R., Corrosion performance of mild steel and epoxy coated rebar in concrete under simulated harsh environment, International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 37(5): 657–678, 2019, doi: 10.1108/IJBPA-12-2018-0099.
Rajitha K., Mohana K.N.S., Mohanan A., Madhusudhana A.M., Evaluation of anti-corrosion performance of modified gelatin-graphene oxide nanocomposite dispersed in epoxy coating on mild steel in saline media, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 587: 124341, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2019.124341.
Khodair Z.T., Khadom A.A., Jasim H.A., Corrosion protection of mild steel in different aqueous media via epoxy/nanomaterial coating: preparation, characterization and mathematical views, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 8(1): 424–435, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.03.003.
Tang F., Bao Y., Chen Y., Tang Y., Chen G., Impact and corrosion resistances of duplex epoxy/enamel coated plates, Construction and Building Materials, 112: 7–18, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.170.
Wang Y.Q., Kong G., Che C.S., Zhang B., Inhibitive effect of sodium molybdate on the corrosion behavior of galvanized steel in simulated concrete pore solution, Construction and Building Materials, 162: 383–392, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.035.
Pokorný P., Tej P., Kouřil M., Evaluation of the impact of corrosion of hot-dip galvanized reinforcement on bond strength with concrete – a review, Construction and Building Materials, 132: 271–289, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.11.096.
Singh D.D.N., Ghosh R., Electroless nickel–phosphorus coatings to protect steel reinforcement bars from chloride induced corrosion, Surface and Coatings Technology, 201(1-2): 90–101, 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.10.045.
Mukhopadhyay A., Sahoo S., Corrosion protection of reinforcement steel rebars by the application of electroless nickel coatings, Engineering Research Express, 1(1): 015021, 2019, doi: 10.1088/2631-8695/ab35f0.
Mukhopadhyay A., Sahoo S., Improving corrosion resistance of reinforcement steel rebars exposed to sulphate attack by the use of electroless nickel coatings, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering (in press), 2021, doi: 10.1080/19648189.2021.1886177.
Karimzadeh A., Rouhaghdam A.S., Aliofkhazraei M., Miresmaeili R., Sliding wear behavior of Ni–Co–P multilayer coatings electrodeposited by pulse reverse method, Tribology International, 141: 105914, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.105914.
Allahyarzadeh M.H., Aliofkhazraei M., Rezvanian A.R., Torabinejad V., Rouhaghdam A.S., Ni-W electrodeposited coatings: characterization, properties and applications, Surface and Coatings Technology, 307, Part A: 978–1010, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.09.052.
Loto C.A., Electroless nickel plating – a review, Silicon, 8(2): 177–186, 2016.
Sahoo P., Das S.K., Tribology of electroless nickel coatings – a review, Materials Design, 32(4): 1760–1775, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2010.11.013.
Ribeiro D.V., Abrantes J.C.C., Application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to monitor the corrosion of reinforced concrete: a new approach, Construction and Building Materials, 111: 98–104, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.047.
Bureau of Indian Standards, https://bis.gov.in/qazwsx/sti/STI1786PP6.pdf (accessed March 15, 2021).
Duari S., Mukhopadhyay A., Barman T.K., Sahoo P., Investigation of friction and wear properties of electroless Ni–P–Cu coating under dry condition, Journal of Molecular and Engineering Materials, 4(04): 1640013, 2016, doi: 10.1142/S225123731640013X.
Achuthamenon Sylajakumari P., Ramakrishnasamy R., Palaniappan G., Taguchi grey relational analysis for multi-response optimization of wear in co-continuous composite, Materials, 11(9): 1743, 2018, doi: 10.3390/ma11091743.
Prusty J.K., Pradhan B., Multi-response optimization using Taguchi-Grey relational analysis for composition of fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag based geopolymer concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 241: 118049, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118049.
Prakash K.S., Gopal P.M., Karthik S., Multi-objective optimization using Taguchi based grey relational analysis in turning of Rock dust reinforced Aluminum MMC, Measurement, 157: 107664, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2020.107664.
Das S.K., Sahoo P., Tribological characteristics of electroless Ni–B coating and optimization of coating parameters using Taguchi based grey relational analysis, Materials Design, 32(4): 2228–2238, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2010.11.028.
Mukhopadhyay A., Sahoo S., Corrosion performance of steel rebars by application of electroless Ni-P-W coating – an optimization approach using grey relational analysis, FME Transactions, 49: 445–455, 2021, https://www.mas.bg.ac.rs/_media/istrazivanje/fme/vol49/2/20_s._sahoo_et_al.pdf.
Liu J., Wang X., Tian Z., Yuan M., Ma X., Effect of copper content on the properties of electroless Ni–Cu–P coatings prepared on magnesium alloys, Applied Surface Science, 356: 289–293, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.08.072.
Liu Y., Zhao Q., Study of electroless Ni–Cu–P coatings and their anti-corrosion properties, Applied Surface Science, 228(1–4): 57–62, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2003.12.031.
Chen J., Zou Y., Matsuda K., Zhao G., Effect of Cu addition on the microstructure, thermal stability, and corrosion resistance of Ni–P amorphous coating, Materials Letters, 191: 214–217, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2016.12.059.
Roy S., Sahoo P., An experimental approach for optimizing coating parameters of electroless Ni-P-Cu coating using artificial bee colony algorithm, International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014: Article ID 976869, 12 pages, 2014, doi: 10.1155/2014/976869.
Ankita S., Singh A.K., Corrosion and wear resistance study of Ni-P and Ni-P-PTFE nanocomposite coatings, Central European Journal of Engineering, 1(3): 234–243, 2011, doi: 10.2478/s13531-011-0023-8.
Copyright © 2014 by Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland