Engineering Transactions, 66, 3, pp. 325–338, 2018

Evaluation of Cutting Forces and Temperature of Iron-Rich Binder Carbide Tool in Turning of Titanium

Chandrashekar MAHADEVAIAH
Visvesvaraya Technological University

Sreenivasa PRASAD
Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara University

The machining of titanium has been understood to be challenging and costly due to its material properties such as low thermal conductivity, low modulus of elasticity, high strength at elevated temperatures and chemical reactivity. This work aims to study the effect of iron as a partial substitution along with cobalt binder as the tool material for machining of titanium alloy. In this work, iron-rich binder tool (WC-Co-Fe) and cobalt binder tool (WC-Co) samples were produced by powder metallurgy route using powders with a mean particle size of less than 0.5 μm. Next, the evaluation of mechanical properties and phase analysis were performed. Turning experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed and depth of cut (DOC), to evaluate the effects of iron-rich binder on flank wear, cutting forces and cutting temperature.
The obtained results of turning experiments reveal that iron-rich binder tends to increase cutting performance in comparison to conventional WC-Co composite cutting tools.
Keywords: titanium; cutting tools; tungsten carbide; cobalt; iron
Full Text: PDF


Ezugwu E.O, Wang Z.M., Titanium alloys and their machinability – a review, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 68(3): 262–274, 1997.

Paulo Davim J. (ed.), Machining of Titanium Alloys, Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-43902-9_1, 2014.

Ahsan K.B., Mazid A.M., Clegg R.E., Pang G.K.H., Study on carbide cutting tool life using various cutting speeds for α-β Ti alloy machining, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 55(2): 601–606, 2012.

Ezugwu E.O., Wang Z.M., Machado A.R., Wear of coated carbide tools when machining nickel (Inconel-718) and titanium base (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys, Tribology Transactions, 43: 263–268, 2000.

Sun S., Brandtm., Dargusch M.S., Characteristics of cutting forces and chip formation in machining of titanium alloys, International Journal Machine Tools and Manufacturing, 49(7–8): 561–568, 2009.

Komanduri R., Some clarifications on the mechanics of chip formation when machining titanium alloys, Wear, 76: 15–34, 1982.

Nouari M., Makich H., Experimental investigation on the effect of the material microstructure on tool wear when machining hard titanium alloys: Ti–6Al–4V and Ti-555., Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 41: 259–269, 2013.

Friedrich C.R., Kulkarmi V.P., Effect of workpiece springback on micro-milling forces, Microsystem Technologies, 10: 472–477, 2004

Kikuchi M., The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys, Acta Biomaterialia, 5(2): 770–775, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2008.08.016.

Mia M., Khan A., Dhar N.R., High-pressure coolant on flank and rake surfaces of tool in turning of Ti-6Al-4V: investigations on surface roughness and tool wear, International Journal of Advance Manufacturing Technology, 90(5–8): 1825–1834, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s00170-016-9512-5.

Gille G., Szesny B., Dreyer K., Van Den Berg H., Schmidt J., Gestrich T., Leitner G., Submicron and ultrafine grained hard metals for microdrills and metal cutting inserts, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 20(1): 3–22, 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0263-4368(01)00066-X.

Fang Z.Z., Wang X., Ryu T., Hwang K.S., Sohn H.Y., Synthesis, sintering, and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline cemented tungsten carbide – a review, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 27(2): 288–299, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2008.07.011.

De Macedo H.R., Da Silva A.G.P., De Melo D.M.A, The spreading of cobalt, nickel and iron on tungsten carbide and the first stage of hard metal cutting, Material Letters, 57(24–25),:3924-3932, 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00242-8.

Davis J.R., ASM specialty handbook: tool materials. General guidelines for selecting cutting tool materials, ASM International, 1995,

Kalidass S., Ravikumar T.M., Cutting force prediction in end milling process of AISI 304 steel using solid carbide tools, International Journal of Engineering Transactions A: Basics, 28(7): 1074–1081, 2015.

Ramana M.V., Rao G.K.M., Rao D.H., Experimental investigations on tool wear in turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under different machining environmental conditions, International Journal of Manufacturing Research, 11(4): 339–355, 2016, doi: 10.1504/IJMR.2016.10003302.

Ghani J., Che Haron C., Kasim M., Sulaiman M., Tomadi, S., Wear mechanism of coated and uncoated carbide cutting tool in machining process, Journal of Materials Research, 31(13): 1873–1879, 2016, doi: 10.1557/jmr.2015.382.

Sahu D.K., Sen P.K., Sahu G., Sharma R., Bohidar S., A review on effect of cutting parameters on cutting force in turning process, Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal, 5(5): 332–337, 2015.

Lowen E.G., Shaw M.C., On the analysis of cutting tool temperatures, Transactions of ASME, 76: 217–231, 1954.

DOI: 10.24423/EngTrans.884.20180928

Copyright © 2014 by Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland