Engineering Transactions, 65, 2, pp. 289–305, 2017

Effects of Hole-Perpendicularity Error on Joint Stiffness of Single-Lap Double-Bolt Composite Joints

Xueshu LIU
Dalian University of Technology

Yuxing YANG
Dalian University of Technology

Hang GAO
Dalian University of Technology

Yongjie BAO
Dalian University of Technology

Rupeng LI
Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd.

Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd.

To investigate the influence of hole-perpendicularity error on stiffness of single-lap double-bolt composite joints, a finite element model was first created and validated by using the analogical mass-spring based model proposed by McCarthy et al. The model was then modified by introducing hole-perpendicularity error, with which the influences of holeperpendicularity error, which is represented by hole-titling angle, hole-tilting direction, and bolt torque on the joint stiffness are studied. It is found that the hole-tilting direction causes the joint stiffness to either increase or decrease, which depends on the relation between the hole-tilting direction and the loading orientation. In addition, the hole-tilting angle strengthens the influence of hole-tilting direction and the bolt torque plays the most important role among the three factors in affecting the joint stiffness.
Keywords: bolted joints; joint stiffness; hole-perpendicularity error; bolt torque
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN).


Camanho P.P., Matthews F.L., A progressive damage model for mechanically fastened joints in composite laminates, Journal of Composite Materials, 33(24): 2248–2280,1999.

Santiuste C., Olmedo A., Soldani X., Miguelez M.H., Delamination prediction in orthogonal machining of carbon long fiber-reinforced polymer composites, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 31(13): 875–885, 2012.

Catalanotti G., Camanho P.P., A semi-analytical method to predict net-tension failure of mechanically fastened joints in composite laminate, Composites Science and Technology, 76: 69–76, 2013.

Coelho A.M.G., Mottram J.T., A review of the behaviour and analysis of bolted connections and joints in pultruded fibre reinforced polymers, Materials and Design, 74: 86–107, 2015.

Sun H., Chang F., Qing X., The response of composite joints with bolt-clamping loads. Part II: Model verification, Journal of Composite Materials, 36(1): 69–92, 2002.

Stanley W.F., McCarthy M.A., Lawlor V.P., Measurement of load distribution in multi-bolt, composite joints, in the presence of varying clearance, Journal of Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 31(9): 412–418, 2002.

Zhai Y., Li D., Li X., Wang L., Yin Y., An experimental study on the effect of bolt-hole clearance and bolt torque on single-lap, countersunk composite joints, Composite Structures, 127: 411–419, 2015.

Saleem M., Zitoune R., Sawi I. El, Bougherara H., Role of the surface quality on the mechanical behaviour of CFRP bolted composite joints, International Journal of Fatigue, 80: 246–256, 2015.

Gray P.J., McCarthy C.T., A global bolted joint model for finite element analysis of load distributions in multi-bolt composite joints, Composites: Part B, 41: 317–325, 2010.

Gray P.J., McCarthy C.T., A highly efficient user-defined finite element for load distribution analysis of large-scale bolted composite structures, Composites Science and Technology, 71: 1517–1527, 2011.

Wang Z., Zhou S., Zhang J., Wu X., Zhou L., Progressive failure analysis of bolted single-lap composite joint based on extended finite element method, Materials and Design, 37: 582–588, 2012.

Huang W., Sun Y., Cheng X., Nie H., Tensile property of single countersunk bolt composite laminate joints, Journal of Materials Engineering, 0(12): 8–12, 2013.

Atas A., Soutis C., Strength prediction of bolted joints in CFRP composite laminates using cohesive zone elements, Composites: Part B, 58: 25–34, 2014.

Leone F.A., Davila C.G., Girolamo D., Progressive damage analysis as a design tool for composite bonded joints, Composites: Part B, 77: 474–483, 2015.

McCarthy C.T., Gray P.J., An analytical model for the prediction of load distribution in highly torqued multi-bolt composite joints, Composite Structures, 93: 287–298, 2011.

Gant F., Rouch Ph., Louf F., Champaney L., Definition and updating of simplified models of joint stiffness, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 48: 775–784, 2011.

Liu L., Mao Y., Wei R., An analytical tool to predict load distribution of multi-bolt single-lap thick laminate joints, [In:] 18th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM) Jeju Island, Korea, 2011.

Andriamampianina J., Alkatan F., Stephan P., Guillot J., Determining load distribution between the different rows of fasteners of a hybrid load transfer bolted joint assembly, Aerospace Science and Technology, 23: 312–320, 2012.

Gray P.J., McCarthy C.T., An analytical model for the prediction of through-thickness stiffness in tension-loaded composite bolted joints, Composite Structures, 94(8): 2450–2459, 2012.

Olmedo A., Santiuste C., Barbero, An analytical model for predicting the stiffness and strength of pinned-joint composite laminates, Composites Science and Technology, 90: 67–73, 2014.

Taheri-Behrroz F., Shamaei Kashani A.R., Hefz-Abad R.N., Effects of material nonlinearity on load distribution in multi-bolt composite joints, Composite Structures, 125: 195–201, 2015.

Xie Z.H., Li X., Guo J.P., Xiong X., Dang X., Load distribution homogenization method of multi-bolt composite joint with consideration of bolt-hole clearance, Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 33(4): 806–813, 2016.

Bodjona K., Raju K., Lim G.H., Lessard L., Load sharing in single-lap bonded/bolted composite joints. Part I: Model development and validation, Composite Structures, 129: 268–275, 2015.

Dahlstrom S., Lindkvist L., Variation simulation of sheet metal assemblies using the method of influence coefficients with contact modelling, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 129: 615–622, 2006.

Samper S., Adragna P.A., Favreliere H., Pillet M., Modeling of 2D and 3D assemblies taking into account form errors of plane surfaces, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 9: 041005–1–12, 2009.

Gant F., Rouch Ph., Champaney L., Updating of uncertain joint models using the Lack-of-Knowledge theory, Computers and Structures, 128: 128–135, 2013.

Lecomte J., Bois C., Wargnier H., Wahl J.C., An analytical model for the prediction of load distribution in multi-bolt composite joints including hole-location errors, Composite Structures, 117: 354–361, 2014.

Warmefjord K., Lindkvist L., Soderberg R., Tolerance simulation of compliant sheet metal assemblies using automatic node-based contact detection, [In:] Proceedings of IMECE2008 2008 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 2008.

Jareteg C., Warmefjord K., Soderberg R., Lindkvist L., Cromvik C., Carlson., J., Edelvik F., Variation simulation for composite parts and assemblies including variation in fiber orientation and thickness, Procedia CIRP, 23: 235–240, 2014.

Soderberg R., Warmefjord K., Lindkvist L., Variation simulation of stress during assembly of composite parts, CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 64: 17–20, 2015.

Bhat M.R., Vijaya Kumar R.L., Probabilistic stress variation studies on composite single lap joint using Monte Carlo simulation, Composite Structures, 121: 351–361, 2015.

Tsao C.C., Effect of induced bending moment (IBM) on critical thrust force for delamination in step drilling of composites, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 59: 1–5, 2012.

Liu L., Zhang J., Chen K., Wang H., Influences of assembly parameters on the strength of bolted composite-metal joints under tensile loading, Advanced Composite Materials, 22(5): 339–359, 2013.

Zhou Y., Nezhad H.Y., Hou C., Wan X., McCarthy C.T., McCarthy M.A., A three dimensional implicit finite element damage model and its application to single-lap multi-bolt composite joints with variable clearance, Composite Structures, 131: 1060–1072, 2015.

Irisarri F.X., Laurin F., Carrere N., Maire J.F., Progressive damage and failure of mechanically fastened joints in CFRP laminates – Part I: Refined finite element modelling of single-fastener joints, Composite Structures, 94: 2269–2277,2012.

Zhang J., Liu F., Zhao L., Chen Y., Fei B., A progressive damage analysis based characteristic length method for multi-bolt composite joints, Composite Structures, 108, 2014.

Su Z.C., Tay T.E., Ridha M., Chen B.Y., Progressive damage modelling of open-hole composite laminates under compression, Composite Structures, 122: 507–517, 2015.

Du D., Hu Y., Li H.,, Tao J., Open-hole tensile progressive damage and failure prediction of carbon fiber-reinforced peek-titanium laminates, Composites: Part B, 91: 65–74, 2016.

McCarthy C.T., McCarthy M.A., Lawlor V.P., Stanley W.F., Three-dimensional finite element analysis of single-bolt, single-lap composite bolted joint: Part I – Model development and validation, Composite Structures, 71: 140–158, 2005.

McCarthy M.A., McCarthy C.T., Padhi G.S., A simple method for determining the effects of bolt-hole clearance on load distribution in single-column multi-bolt composite joints, Composite Structures, 73(1): 78–87, 2006.

Wang P., He R., Chen H., Zhu X., Zhao Q., Fang D., A novel predictive model for mechanical behaviour of single-lap GFRP composite bolted joint under static and dynamic loading, Composites: Part B, 79: 322–330, 2015.

McCarthy C.T., McCarthy M.A., Stanley W.F., Lawlor V.P., Experiences with modelling friction in composite bolted joints, Journal of Composite Materials, 39(21): 1881–1908, 2005.