Engineering Transactions, 65, 2, pp. 371–389, 2017

Preparation of a New AAC-Concrete Sandwich Block and its Compressive Behavior at Quasi-Static Loading

Farid ABED
American University of Sharjah Department of Civil Engineering
United Arab Emirates

American University of Sharjah
United Arab Emirates

American University of Sharjah
United Arab Emirates

American University of Sharjah

American University of Sharjah
United Arab Emirates

Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is an environmentally friendly material that has several advantages such as heat insulation, sound insulation, and light weight which reduce the energy consumption of a structure during its construction and when using it. However, the compressive strength of AAC is relatively low in comparison with concrete masonry units that are used as building blocks. This paper provides insight into a newly proposed AAC-concrete sandwich composite. The main aim of this research is to produce a lightweight eco-friendly loadbearing building block. Construction and demolition wastes including the cement and fine powder waste were utilized to generate the AAC-concrete composite. The proposed sandwich composite was tested in a number of stages. Firstly, a preliminary test was conducted to test the proposed sandwiching technique. Three sets of plain sandwich specimens were prepared, each with a different combination of AAC thickness and concrete thickness. It was found that the proposed composite had a higher compressive strength than AAC and a lower density than the normal concrete. Secondly, different concrete and mortar mixes were prepared and studied to identify the mix that would yield the best sandwich composite. This best mix was identified and used throughout the experiment. Thirdly, different sandwiching techniques were applied to enhance bonding at the AAC-concrete interface. The
proposed sandwiching techniques were as follows: (1) inserting grooves at the AAC-concrete interface and (2) wrapping the AAC block with wire mesh. Multiple cube specimens with 10 cm side length were prepared and tested for their compressive strength. It was found that the wire mesh provided a more effective bonding. Finally, additional grooved and plain sandwich cube specimens with 20 cm side length were prepared and tested under different quasi-static loading rates. Unlike plain sandwich block, the compressive behavior of grooved sandwich showed a slight increase in its capacity at higher quasi-static rate. Almost all specimens in this study failed in a similar manner that is, by debonding at the AAC-concrete interface, followed by crushing.
Keywords: composite; AAC; quasi-static; sandwich block; recycled materials
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN).


Rezende L.R., Camapum de Carvalh J., The use of quarry waste in pavement construction, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 39(1): 91–105, 2003.

Nasly M.A, Yassin A.A.M., Sustainable housing using an innovative interlocking block building system, [in:] Proceedings of the 5th National Conference on Civil Engineering (AWAM’09): Toward Sustainable Development, Kuala Lumpur, Malysia, pp. 130–138, 2009.

Ahmed A., Fried A., Flexural strength of low density blockwork, Construction and Building Materials, 35: 516–520, 2012.

Bisceglie F., Gigante E., Bergonzoni M., Utilization of waste autoclaved aerated concrete as a lighting material in the structure of a green roof, Construction and Building Materials, 69: 351–361, 2014.

UNI 11235, Criteria for design, execution, testing and maintenance of roof garden, by UNI – Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione (UNI), May 2007.

Drochytka R., Zach J., Korjenic A., Hroudová J., Improving the energy efficiency in buildings while reducing the waste using autoclaved aerated concrete made from power industry waste, Energy and Buildings, 58: 319–323, 2013.

Yardim Y., Waleed A.M.T., Jaafar M., Laseima S., AAC-concrete light weight precast composite floor slab, Construction and Building Materials, 40: 405–410, 2013.

British Standards, BS 5628: Part 1: – structural use of unreinforced masonry, 1992.

British Standards, BS EN 1052: Part 2: determination of flexural strength, 1999 (now incorporated into Eurocode 6).

Jerman M., Keppert M., Výborný J., Černý R., Hygric, thermal and durability of autoclaved aerated concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 41: 352–359, 2013.

Huang X., Ni W., Cui W., Wang Z., Zhu L., Preparation of autoclaved aerated concrete using copper tailings and blast furnace slag, Construction and Building Materials, 27(1): 1–5, 2012.

Wakili K., Hugi E., Karvonen L., Schnewlin P., Winnefeld F., Thermal behavior of autoclaved aerated concrete exposed to fire, Cement and Concrete Composites, 62, 52–58, 2015.

Ayudhya B.I.N., Compressive and splitting tensile strength of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) containing perlite aggregate and polypropylene fiber subjected to high temperatures, Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 33(5): 555–563, 2011.

Memon N.A., Sumadi S.R., Ramli M., Ferrocement encased lightweight aerated concrete: a novel approach to produce sandwich composite, Materials Letters, 61(19–20): 4035–4038, 2007.

Sumadi S.R., Ramli M., Development of lightweight ferrocement sandwich panels for modular housing and industrialized building system, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Research Vote No. 73311, 2008.

Andolsun S., A study on material properties of autoclaved aerated concrete and its complementary wall elements: their compatibility in contemporary and historical wall sections, M.S. Thesis [online], Ankara, Turkey, Middle East Technical University, 2006.

Valore R.C., Cellular concretes: part 2: physical properties, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 25(10): 817–836, 1954.

Legatski L.A., Cellular concrete, significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials, [in]: ASTM Special Technical Publication, 169C: Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials, Klinger P.K, Lamond J.F. [eds.], pp. 533–539, Philadelphia, 1994.

Narayanan N., Ramamurthy K., Structure and properties of aerated concrete: a review, Cement and Concrete Composites, 22: 321–329, 2000.