Engineering Transactions, 72, 1, pp. 61–79, 2024

Cracking Characteristics of Different Crack Forms in Pavement under Moving Load

Guannan YAN
China Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd.

In road engineering, the crack damage problems are one of the essential research areas that need to be emphasized. However, there have been few researches on the effects caused by different crack forms, e.g., the impacts of the distribution and propagation directions of formed cracks on subsequent cracking characteristics. In this study, two road models, including double cracks with different distribution and propagation directions, were established in ABAQUS software, and the potential cracking characteristics of such crack forms under moving load were investigated through numerical analysis. The simulation results demonstrated that the distribution and propagation directions of cracks are critical in affecting potential cracking modes and stress intensity factors. In more detail, a deeper crack tip with respect to the road surface tends to bring about the cracking with the first mode within a certain depth range. Additionally, a larger angle between the distribution direction of cracks and the traffic direction can promote the cracking with the second mode. Due to the too low numerical level of the stress intensity factor under the third mode at the middle crack tip, cracking with the third mode is generally unlikely for the middle zone of cracks in the pavement under a moving load. In view of this, on the premise that all cracks have the same sizes, a reflective crack is more likely to extend with the first mode than a top-down crack within a certain depth range, and compared with a longitudinal crack, a transverse crack has a higher potential to propagate with the second mode. Therefore, transverse reflective crack is a severe form of damage that needs to be detected as early as possible and repaired promptly.
Keywords: numerical analysis; cracking characteristics; different crack forms; stress intensity factors; transverse reflective crack
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Al-Qudsi A., Falchetto A.C., Wang D., Büchler S., Kim Y.S., Wistuba M.P., Finite element cohesive fracture modeling of asphalt mixture based on the semi-circular bending (SCB) test and self-affine fractal cracks at low temperatures, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 169: 102916, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2019.102916.

Saeidi H., Aghayan I., Investigating the effects of aging and loading rate on low-temperature cracking resistance of core-based asphalt samples using semi-circular bending test, Construction and Building Materials, 126: 682–690, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.054.

Falchetto A.C., Moon K.H., Wang D., Riccardi C., Wistuba M.P., Comparison of low-temperature fracture and strength properties of asphalt mixture obtained from IDT and SCB under different testing configurations, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 19(3): 591–604, 2018, doi: 10.1080/14680629.2018.1418722.

Birgisson B., Montepara A., Romeo E., Tebaldi G., Characterisation of asphalt mixture cracking behaviour using the three-point bending beam test, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 12(6): 569–578, 2011, doi: 10.1080/10298436.2011.565766.

Chen L.L., Qian Z.D., Lu Q., Crack initiation and propagation in epoxy asphalt concrete in the three-point bending test, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 15(3): 507–520, 2014, doi: 10.1080/14680629.2014.908132.

Chiangmai C.N., Buttlar W.G., Cyclic loading behavior of asphalt concrete mixture using disk-shaped compact tension (DC(T)) test and released energy approach, Asphalt Paving Technology: Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists – Proceedings of the Technical Sessions, 84: 593–614, 2015.

Huang Z.Y., Wang J.C., Zhu X.R., Viscoelastic fracture analysis of asphalt concrete pavement with cracks, China Journal of Highway and Transport (in Chinese), 19(2): 18–23, 2006.

Huang Z.Y., Wang J.C., Zhu X.R., Viscoelastic analysis of asphalt pavement with reflective cracks and subjected to dynamic loading, Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science Edition) (in Chinese), 41(1): 114–119, 2007.

Miao Y., Wan Y.D., Zhang S.M., Dynamic response analysis of asphalt pavement with reflective crack, Rock and Soil Mechanics (in Chinese), 30(8): 2511–2516, 2009.

Zhao Y.Q., Tan Y.Q., Analysis of top-down cracking of asphalt pavements based on fracture mechanics approach, Journal of Tongji University (Natural Science Edition) (in Chinese), 38(2): 218–222, 2010.

Miao Y., He T.G., Yang Q., Zheng J.J., Multi-domain hybrid boundary node method for evaluating top-down crack in asphalt pavements, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 34(9): 755–760, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.enganabound.2010.04.002.

Ameri M., Mansourian A., Heidary Khavas M., Aliha M.R.M., Ayatollahi M.R., Cracked asphalt pavement under traffic loading – A 3D finite element analysis, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 78(8): 1817–1826, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2010.12.013.

Li S., Li Y.Z., Liu Z.H., Research on temperature fatigue damage and cracking in asphalt layer of rigid-flexible composite pavement, Engineering Mechanics (in Chinese), 30(10): 122–127, 2013, doi: 10.6052/j.issn.1000-4750.2012.06.0448.

Wang X.Y., Zhong Y., Influence of tack coat on reflective cracking propagation in semi-rigid base asphalt pavement, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 213: 172–181, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2019.04.015.

Che F., Chen S.F., Li Z.H., Liu W.D., Wang A.X., Analysis of cracks propagation on asphalt pavement surface under load, Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (in Chinese), 27(5): 26–29, 2010, doi: 10.1214/10-AAP750.

Xie D., Qian Q., Li C.A., Numerical Methods and Engineering Application in Fracture Mechanics (in Chinese), Science Press, Beijing, China, 2009.

Yan G.N., Ye Z.J., Wang W.T., Wang L.B., Numerical analysis on distribution and response of acceleration field of pavement under moving load, International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 14(5): 519–529, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s42947-020-0179-9.

Yang H.L., Zhao Q., Guo X.L., Zhang W.D., Liu P.F., Wang L.B., Numerical analysis of signal response characteristic of piezoelectric energy harvesters embedded in pavement, Materials, 13(12): 2770, 2020, doi: 10.3390/ma13122770.

Ye Z.J., Miao Y.H., Zhang W.D., Wang L.B., Effects of random non-uniform load on asphalt pavement dynamic response, International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 14(3): 299–308, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s42947-020-0147-0.

Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China, Specifications for Design of Highway Asphalt Pavement (JTG D50-2006) (in Chinese), China Communications Press, Beijing, China, 2006.

Liao G.Y., Huang X.M., Application of ABAQUS Finite Element Software in Road Engineering (in Chinese), Southeast University Press, Nanjing, China, 2008.

Dong Z.J., Tan Y.Q., Ou J.P., Dynamic response analysis of asphalt pavement under three-directional nonuniform moving load, China Civil Engineering Journal (in Chinese), 46(6): 122–130, 2013, doi: 10.15951/j.tmgcxb.2013.06.003.

Ye Z.J., Lu Y., Wang L.B., Investigating the pavement vibration response for roadway service condition evaluation, Advances in Civil Engineering, 2018: 2714657, 2018, doi: 10.1155/2018/2714657.

DOI: 10.24423/EngTrans.3105.2024