Engineering Transactions, Online first

Consideration of the Safety of Bungee Jumping in Relation to Mechanical Properties of the Installation Based on a Jump Accident in Gdynia

Gdańsk University of Technology

Gdańsk University of Technology

This paper considers a bungee jumping accident that took place in July 2019 in Gdynia, Poland. The authors conducted an investigation to determine the cause of the bungee rope failure. It was based on mechanical tests concerning the strength of the rope as well as the
calculation of the force induced in the rope during the jump. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the rope safety factor was estimated. It appeared to be three-fold lower than it is recommended in Polish regulations concerning ropes dedicated to lifting people for industrial and public purposes. However, no law regulations strictly concerning bungee  installation makes it easy for accidents to occur.
Keywords: bungee rope failure; bungee jumping safety; latex rope; mechanical test; safety factor
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Attenborough D.F., The land-diving ceremony in Pentecost, New Hebrides, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 251(772): 503, 1966,

Tabani M., The carnival of custom: land dives, millenarian parades and other spectacular ritualizations in Vanuatu, Oceania, 80(3): 309–329, 2010,

Crowe J.W., Safety values and safe practices among college students, Journal of Safety Research 26(3): 187–195, 1995,

Moznik M., Bakovic M., Ajman H., Changes in physiological indicators during the first bungee jump, Sport Mont, 17(2): 35–39, 2019,

Hsieh M.-T., Sun I.-T., Chen C.-H., Ocular injuries after bungee jumping: A case report and literature review, Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology, 8(1): 52–54, 2018,

Burchette D., Badhrinarayanan S., Hardwick T., Kampa R., Femoral shaft fracture during bungee jump: a case report and literature review, Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma, 6(3): 262–266, 2018,

Feyrer K., Wire Ropes; Tension, Endurance and Reliability, Springer, Berlin,Heidelberg, 2015.

Jones D.R.H., Analysis of a fatal bungee-jumping accident, Engineering Failure Analysis, 11(6): 857–872, 2004,

Piskoty G., Affolter Ch., Sauder M., Nambiar M., Weisse B., Failure analysis of a ropeway accident focussing on the wire rope’s fracture load under lateral pressure, Engineering Failure Analysis, 82: 648–656, 2017,

DIN 53835-2, Testing of textiles; determination of the elastic behavior of single and plied elastomeric yarns by repeated application of tensile load between constant extension limits, 1981.

DIN 53835-13, Testing of textiles; determination of the elastic behavior of textile fabrics by a single application of tensile load between constant extension limits, 1983.

ASTM D2731-21, Standard Test Method for Elastic Properties of Elastomeric Yarns (CRE Type Tensile Testing Machines).

ASTM D2433-07, Standard Test Methods for Rubber Thread (withdrawn 2012).

ISO 2321:2017, Rubber threads – Methods of test.

ZwickRoell, Testing Machines and Testing Systems for Textile Materials,

Weber H., Kaczmarczyk S, Iwankiewicz R., Non-linear dynamic response of a cable system with a tuned mass damper to stochastic base excitation via equvalent linearization technique, Meccanica, 55: 2413–2422, 2020,

Jianan X., Mengliang M., Shanglong Z., Modelling and analysis of rope flexibility in deep sea lifting operation, Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA, pp. 767–772, 2018, Changchun.

Loos S.A.M., Force-linearization closure, [in:] Stochastic Systems with Time Delay: Probabilistic and Thermodynamic Descriptions of non-Markovian Processes far From Equilibrium, pp. 159-181, Springer, Cham, 2021,

Ambroziak A., Characterization study on mechanical properties of polyester coated fabric, Archives of Civil Engineering, 66(2): 105–118, 2020,

Shapiro S.S., Wilk M.B., An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples), Biometrika, 52(3/4): 591–611, 1965,

BERSA, British Elastic Rope Sports Association. The BERSA code of safe practice, Oxford: BERSA, 1998.

HELA, Health and Safety Executive/Local Authorities Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA). Local authority circular 47/2, bungee jumping, London: HELA, 2000.

Dz.U. 2002.4.43, Regulation of the Minister of Economy of December 28, 2001 on the technical conditions of technical inspection to be met by the jacks [in Polish], 2001.

2006/42/EC, Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 17, 2006 on machinery, Official Journal of the European Union 9.6.2006 L.157/24-86, 2006.

Kockelman J.W., Hubbard M., Bungee jumping cord design using a simple model, Sports Engineering, 7(2): 89–96, 2004,

DOI: 10.24423/EngTrans.2225.20221104